From the mid-70’s began the second stage of development of STR, which is characterized by new radical changes in the technological method of production. Such changes are, first of all, the microprocessor revolution (the content of which is electronic automation of material production and circulation, scientific and technical creativity, other spheres of human activity), the biotechnological revolution (aimed at creating new organisms with predetermined properties by genetic and cellular engineering). new generation of industrial robots, or intelligent robots, the rapid development of astronautics for practical purposes, and so on.
The result of the second stage of STR is the appearance in the system of productive forces of another element – information. The deployment of STR causes the emergence of new types of society, including the information society (including the information economy), post-industrial society, cyber, technology, and so on.
In the information society, the main commodity is information, in the post-industrial – theoretical knowledge. On this basis, significantly change other aspects of the economic system and social relations (social, legal, political, etc.).
Productive forces – a system of factors of production, which ensures the transformation of natural substances in accordance with the needs of people, creates material and spiritual goods and determines the growth of productivity of social labor. This system includes: workers, means of labor, objects of labor, the forces of nature used, science as a specific productive force, forms and methods of organization of production, information.
Productive forces express man’s attitude to nature, the degree of human mastery of the forces of nature. They are the leading aspect of the social mode of production, and their level is a general indicator of socio-economic progress, as their development increases labor productivity, national wealth, new energy sources, and so on.
At the same time, the main criterion of social progress is the development of man, his needs, interests, goals. The interaction of the individual (person) and material (means of production) 123helpme.me factors of production is the most important condition for the growth of productive labor, national wealth, in the process of such interaction there is a new productive force, not inherent in any of these factors in particular.
Fundamentals of economic theory / edited by Mocherny SV – K.: Academy, 1997; Political economy / edited by Medvedev VA – M.: Politizdat, 1998; Economic dictionary-reference book / edited by Mocherny SV – K.: Femina, 1995.
Formation of financial resources is carried out at the expense of own and equated to them means, mobilization of resources in the financial market and receipt of means from financial and banking system in the order of redistribution.
The initial formation of financial resources occurs at the time of formation of the enterprise, when the statutory fund is formed. Its sources, depending on the organizational and legal forms of management are: share capital, share contributions of members of cooperatives, industry financial resources (while maintaining industry structures), long-term credit, budget funds. The size of the authorized capital shows the size of those funds – fixed and current – which are invested in the production process.
The main source of financial resources at existing enterprises is the cost of goods sold (services provided), various parts of which in the process of revenue distribution take the form of cash income and savings. Financial resources are formed mainly through profits (from the main and other activities) and depreciation.
Along with them, the sources of financial resources are also:
proceeds from the sale of disposed property, stable liabilities, various targeted revenues (payment for the stay of children in preschool institutions, etc.), mobilization of internal resources in construction, etc.
Along with the above, another source of financial resources plays an important role – shares and other contributions of members of the workforce.
Significant financial resources, especially for newly created and reconstructed enterprises, can be mobilized in the financial market. Forms of their mobilization are: sale of shares, bonds and other types of securities issued by the company, credit investments.
Prior to the transition to market conditions, the company received significant financial resources on the basis of intra-industry redistribution of funds and budget funding. However, the principles of market management, the introduction of commercial principles in the activities of enterprises, of course, required fundamentally different approaches to the formation of financial resources.
Focus on initiative and entrepreneurship, full financial responsibility led to two major changes in the financial relations of enterprises with other structures:
firstly, the development of insurance operations, and secondly, a significant reduction in the scope of free allocations.
In this regard, in the transition to a market economy as part of the financial resources formed by redistribution, an increasing role will gradually play the payment of insurance benefits from insurance companies, and less and less – budgetary and sectoral financial sources.
Enterprises will be able to receive financial resources:
from the associations and concerns in which they belong (only if it is provided by the mechanism of use of the corresponding monetary funds); from higher organizations – while maintaining industry structures; from government agencies – in the form of budget subsidies for a strictly limited list of expenditures.
But in the conditions of functioning of the securities market there will be such kinds of financial resources, as dividends and interests on securities of other issuers, and also profit from carrying out financial operations.
The use of financial resources is carried out by the company in many areas, the main of which are:
payments to the bodies of the financial and banking system due to the fulfillment of financial obligations. These include; tax payments to the budget, payment of interest to banks for the use of loans, repayment of previously taken loans, insurance payments, etc.; investment of own funds in capital expenditures (reinvestment), associated with the expansion of production and its technical recovery, the transition to new advanced technologies, the use of «know-how», etc.; investing financial resources in securities obtained on the market: shares and bonds of other firms, usually closely linked by cooperative supplies with the enterprise, in government loans, etc.; direction of financial resources for the formation of monetary funds of incentive and social nature; use of financial resources for charitable purposes, sponsorship, etc ..
Currently, not only the role of business leaders, members of the boards of joint-stock companies, but also financial services, which played a secondary role in terms of administrative and command management methods, is growing rapidly. Finding financial sources of enterprise development, areas of the most effective investment of financial resources, securities transactions and other issues of financial management are becoming the main financial services of enterprises in a market economy.
The essence of financial management is the organization of financial management by the relevant services, which allows you to attract additional financial resources on the most favorable terms, invest them with the greatest effect, to carry out profitable operations in the financial market, buying and reselling securities. Success in the field of financial management largely depends on the behavior of financial services employees, in which the main ones are initiative, the search for unconventional solutions, the scale of operations and justified risk, business acumen.
When mobilizing the funds of other owners to cover the costs of their enterprise, employees of the financial service must first have a clear idea of the purpose of investing resources and already in accordance with them to give recommendations on how to raise funds. To cover short-term and medium-term needs for funds, it is advisable to use loans from credit institutions.
When making large capital investments in the reconstruction and expansion of the enterprise, you can use the issuance of securities; however, such a recommendation can be given only if the financiers have thoroughly studied the financial market, analyzed the demand for different types of securities, taken into account possible changes in the situation and, weighing all this, but confident in the relatively rapid and profitable sale of their securities. enterprises.
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The modern market economy is a complex organism consisting of various industrial, commercial, financial and information structures that interact against the background of an extensive system of legal norms, and are united by a single concept – the market.