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The above does not mean that there were no contradictions between primitive man and nature.

The best results in terms of survival of melon plants, grafted on 3-4 days after germination, had such rootstocks as pumpkin and large-fruited pumpkin, and 9-10 – beninkaza and loofah.

List of references

Burkin IA Melons and watermelons in the Non-Black Earth // Potatoes and vegetables. – 1982. – No. 5. – https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ P. 32 Gruzdov SF Grafting of plants. – M .: Selkhozgiz, 1954 .– 144 pp. Dospekhov BA Methods of field experience. – M.: Kolos, 1985. – 352 p. Krayevy IM Interspecific grafting of pumpkin plants // Garden and vegetable garden. – 1939. – № 10. – P. 9 – 10. Krai IM New improved varieties of vegetable and melon and methods of their creation // 25 years of work of the Kyiv vegetable and potato research station. – K.: Hold. view. with. – Literature of the USSR, 1963. – P. 10 – 17. Lebedeva SP Introduction of melon in the northern regions of the USSR (Grafting melon on a pumpkin) – M .: Selkhozizdat, 1942. – 50 pp. Methods of research in vegetable growing and melon growing / Ed. GL Bondarenko, KI Yakovenko. – Kharkiv: Osnova, 2001 – 370 pp. Moiseichenko VF Fundamentals of scientific research with vegetable crops in protected soil. – K.: USHA, 1990. – 76 pp. Determinant of higher plants of Ukraine / DN Dobrochaeva, MI Ko-tov, Yu. N. Prokudin, etc. – K.: Naukova dumka, 1987 .– 548 s. Romanenko VV Vegetative hybridization of annual plants. – K.: Soviet school, 1951. – 16 pp. Fedorov AV, Tutova TN Grafting of pumpkin crops // Vegetable growing. – 2005. – No. 12. – P. 50 -52.

11/30/2011

Biology: interactions in nature. Abstract

With the advent of man in the history of the biosphere began a new period. By uniting in groups, clans and tribes, using tools and fire, people began to actively influence the biosphere and adapt themselves to environmental conditions.

When the biological mechanisms of adaptation to new natural conditions were insufficient, social mechanisms were included, ie man changed nature in accordance with their needs. In the system "society – nature" there is a new driving force – anthropogenic factor.

As we can see, the system "society – nature" is very complex in structural terms. Therefore, when studying this system, it is necessary to take into account not only the various connections and interactions between its elements, but also the impact of one interaction on another. Thus, in society we can identify various interactions that affect the stability of the system "society – nature".

It is the interaction between opposite elements (states of different political orientations), between identical elements (NATO member states in matters of war and peace), the interaction between different elements (different types of human activity and nature protection).

To determine the trends of further development of the system "society – nature" are important features of the contradictions that arise within this system due to the interaction of its elements. Contradictions between society and nature arise with the advent of man and are due to the dual attitude of man to nature.

First, man is a part of nature and not only a biological but also a social being, an expression of the interests of society. Secondly, man opposes the natural environment, according to his needs changes it together with other people.

Therefore, in the system of social relations man acts as an element of productive forces and as a force of nature.

One of the contradictions in the system "society – nature" is the existence of unlimited needs for the development of society and the limited capabilities of the biosphere. In the process of ecological interaction of society and nature, contradictions always arise and will arise, which require new approaches and new ways of resolving. All these contradictions are organically linked to economic, social and political processes.

Of considerable scientific interest is the question of the sphere of interaction between society and nature. In the modern scientific literature, this area does not have an unambiguous name. Some authors call the sphere of interaction between society and nature the technosphere (AE Fersman), others – the biotechnosphere (YK Plotnikov), the anthroposphere (KN Dyakonov), the sociosphere (EV Girusov, AD Ursul). There are other names.

Comparing different points of view, we can conclude that the most adequate essence of the sphere of interaction between society and nature conveys the term "sociosphere". Why? Because this term is based on the determining factor of the socio-natural sphere – "socio" which is consonant with the term "biosphere". But if the biosphere is the earth’s crust, in which the leading role belongs to living matter – biota, the sociosphere – the near-Earth space, which covers humanity and the changing natural environment.

The biotechnosphere and the anthroposphere are subsystems of the sociosphere. When we use the term "biotechnosphere", we mean the biosphere transformed by humans, together with technical means, industrial and agricultural production, residential and other buildings, transport, and so on.

The anthroposphere is people, humanity. This is the leading subsystem of the sociosphere. With the advent of man on Earth there is a problem of its interaction with nature. First, man is an integral part of nature, he has a common biological basis with all the animal and plant world. Second, man actively changes nature with the help of tools to meet their needs.

The whole history of the interaction of society and nature can be divided into several periods and stages. In the scientific literature there are different approaches to the periodization of the history of this interaction, due to the complexity of the system "society – nature" and its interacting parties.

Given that the main form of interaction between society and nature is material production, some scientists distinguish the stages of such interaction on the basis of stages of development of material production, changes in its technological methods.

Based on this, there are three most important stages of interaction between society and nature:

the first – manual, or tool, production; the second – machine production; the third – automated production.

Other researchers consider the history of the interaction of society and nature as a history of the gradual removal of natural constraints in the growth of flows of matter and energy from the natural environment to society on the basis of growth and effective use of knowledge. Based on this, the first stage in the history of interaction between nature and society is characterized by the fact that production operates on a natural energy basis.

The second is connected with the industrial revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, that is, with the transition to artificial energy production.

The third stage covers the scientific and technological revolution. Overcoming internal constraints in the growth of flows of matter and energy in the development of production has led to a significant expansion of society’s influence on nature. But there is a new, external limitation – the limited capacity of the biosphere to ensure the scale and pace of social development.

Some researchers base the periodization and interaction of society and nature on the division of society into five socio-economic formations.

The point of view according to which the history of interaction of a society and the nature is divided into 4 periods became widespread:

appropriation, agrarian, industrial, noosphere.

This classification is based on various principles. The first period – appropriation – is based on ways of obtaining livelihoods. The second and third correspond to the dominant type of production – agricultural or industrial. The fourth period is associated with the emergence of the noosphere.

As we see, the periodization of the history of interaction between society and nature, the name of the stages and their number are determined by the basic principles that underlie the authors of this periodization.

In the work of F. Engels "The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State" the history of society is divided into three periods – savagery, barbarism and civilization. The well-known Russian scientist GV Platonov proposes to supplement this periodization, taking into account the results of modern scientific research, the nature and scale of changes that have occurred in the system "society – nature".

He names the following main periods and stages of interaction between society and nature.

The first period is biogenic, or adaptive, which Engels calls "savagery." The second period is man-made. It covers two stages: "barbarism" and "civilization" according to Engels. The third period – noogenic, or modern.

For the biogenic period is characterized by the fact that people lived by hunting, fishing, harvesting and appropriation of finished products of nature. At this stage of social development, people did not yet know the laws of nature. Given the primitiveness of tools and the small number of people, we can conclude that these factors have determined the decisive role of the natural environment in the socio-natural sphere.

The influence of people on nature was carried out at first mainly through the bodily organs. The interaction of man with nature at that time was mainly biological in nature. Man communicated directly with the world of nature, being part of natural ecosystems, to the conditions of existence in which he constantly had to adapt. Tools were also designed for this.

Therefore, a characteristic feature of the first period in the history of interaction between society and nature was the dominant role of biotic factors, which gives reason to call this period biogenic and adaptive. It is implied that man and the natural environment in which he lived, his changes at that time were mainly of biotic origin, man has not yet made significant changes in the biosphere.

That is why there was a relative harmony in the relationship between society and nature. The above does not mean that there were no contradictions between primitive man and nature. Many people died as a result of cold, famine, epidemics, natural disasters, and so on. The opinion of some researchers that primitive people had a paradise life is unfounded. The nature of life of ancient people was determined by daily overcoming the difficulties of existence and struggle with nature.

Of course, during the biogenic period, the influence of nature on society prevailed. But he was not one-sided. After all, any biological species has a certain impact on the environment. Appearing in nature, man from the beginning had a certain impact on the environment, fauna and flora.

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